When slavery was abolished in 1880, Sao Paulo, Brazil, subsidized
the immigration of workers from southern Europe and Japan. Faced
with a worldwide coffee market and abundant land for expansion,
native planters developed a package of incentives to attract
workers, in contrast to the coercive labor systems historically
common in other plantation systems. By the 1930s a clear majority
of the small and medium-sized coffee farms were owned by
Originally published 1980.
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