How did Civil War soldiers endure the brutal and unpredictable
existence of army life during the conflict? This question is at the
heart of Peter S. Carmichael's sweeping new study of men at war.
Based on close examination of the letters and records left behind
by individual soldiers from both the North and the South,
Carmichael explores the totality of the Civil War experience--the
marching, the fighting, the boredom, the idealism, the exhaustion,
the punishments, and the frustrations of being away from families
who often faced their own dire circumstances. Carmichael focuses
not on what
soldiers thought but rather how
thought. In doing so, he reveals how, to the shock of most men,
well-established notions of duty or disobedience, morality or
immorality, loyalty or disloyalty, and bravery or cowardice were
blurred by war.
Digging deeply into his soldiers' writing, Carmichael resists the
idea that there was "a common soldier" but looks into their own
words to find common threads in soldiers' experiences and ways of
understanding what was happening around them. In the end, he argues
that a pragmatic philosophy of soldiering emerged, guiding members
of the rank and file as they struggled to live with the
contradictory elements of their violent and volatile world.
Soldiering in the Civil War, as Carmichael argues, was never a
state of being but a process of becoming.